A Guide to Developing a TB Program Evaluation Plan
Guide to Writing a TB
Program Evaluation Plan
The evaluation plan begins with an introduction that provides background
information important to the evaluation such as the goal of the
evaluation and those who will be involved in the evaluation process.
This section helps to identify the purpose of the document, and
provide a roadmap of the document to the reader.
A goal is an overarching statement of desire that explains why
the evaluation is taking place. Examples of evaluation goals include:
- To determine the effectiveness of the program
- To assess the achievement and progress toward reaching program
- To investigate portions of the program that are performing
optimally so that they can be replicated
- To help equitably redistribute resources
Your evaluation plan should include a statement of the goal(s)
and the purpose of the evaluation, addressing how the evaluation
and its findings will be used.
Sound evaluation requires teamwork. This section provides guidance
on how to select your team and specifies each team member’s
roles and responsibilities. Each team should have a leader or coordinator
who is responsible for ensuring the evaluation is conducted as planned.
In addition, evaluation teams will often have members who are responsible
for carrying out the various activities of the evaluation. More
comprehensive evaluations may also have an advisory group that can
act as a guidance body, a sounding board, or provide technical experts
for portions of the evaluation.
In this section, identify your evaluation leader and specify his/her
roles and responsibilities that may include….
- Oversight of all evaluation activities
- Coordinator of meetings for the evaluation team or advisory
- Principal analyst of the evaluation data
- Primary author of the evaluation plan or reports
- Point person for the dissemination of evaluation reports and
Identify other members on your evaluation team and specify their
evaluation responsibilities. Evaluation team members can include…
- Individuals responsible for some aspect of data collection
or data analysis
- Individuals responsible for dissemination and use of the findings
- Members of the evaluation planning committee
Your evaluation team may include people who may or may not have
prior knowledge of evaluation. These people include your program
manager, nurses, epidemiologists, representatives from partner agencies,
or others. You may need to teach them some basic evaluation concepts.
Resources are available to assist you by contacting DTBE at TBEWG@cdc.gov
Use table 1 to help you identify the members of your evaluation
team and what role they will play. Table 1 can be inserted into
your evaluation plan or can be rewritten as text.
The Evaluation Advisory Group (optional)
The evaluation advisory group is an optional component of your
evaluation’s operation but it can provide important functions
- Technical expertise not otherwise found in your evaluation
team or your program
- An objective viewpoint in the event of disputes
- Representation for funders or other stakeholders
- Interpretation of findings and justifying evaluation conclusions
- A means of disseminating your evaluation reports outside of
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Stakeholders are people with vested interests in the program
and are potentially affected by evaluations. Engaging stakeholders
in your evaluation is beneficial for several reasons. Their involvement
increases the credibility of your evaluation and they may hold an
important viewpoint as someone: a) responsible for day-to-day implementation
of your program; b) able to advocate for your program; or c) able
to authorize funding or changes to your program. Stakeholders can
be divided into 3 major categories: 1. those involved in program
operations, 2. those served or affected by the program, and 3. the
primary users of evaluation. The level of involvement of stakeholders
will vary among different program evaluations, but priority stakeholders
include those who can increase the credibility of the evaluation
efforts, are involved in the implementation of the program activities,
will advocate or authorize changes to the program, or will fund
or authorize improvements to the program.
The lists below will help you think about who the stakeholders
for your evaluation might include. Depending on the context of your
program, categories of stakeholders appropriate for engagement and
their levels of involvement may vary widely. While you may already
know your program stakeholders well, you will need to reconsider
their perspectives in regard to program evaluation. Use worksheet
1 to check which group of stakeholders may have an interest in your
evaluation. This list includes suggestions, but you can also identify
other stakeholders who are not on this list.
For each stakeholder you have identified, consider:
- What is their interest in or perspective on the program and
- What is their role in the evaluation?
- How and when will they be engaged in the evaluation?
The lists below offer some answers to each of these questions.
These may or may not apply to your stakeholders. However, by considering
these factors, you may be able to anticipate some issues that may
arise during the evaluation process or later, when trying to implement
is their interest in or perspective on the TB program and
is their role in the evaluation?
and when will they be engaged in the evaluation?
- Defensive of current system
- Fear program alteration & job loss
- Fear increase in workload
- See program evaluation as a personal judgment
- Fear or reject health system
- Need for services
- Concerns about immigration status
- Partnership capacity
- Community image
- Proof of effects for funding and program expansion purposes
- Community health among underserved population
- Interest in self-improvements and the improvements of
- Define health problem
- Define problem in program from staff perspective
- Define problem in program from client perspective
- Define program processes
- Develop or review data collection tools
- Provide community context
- Provide operational context
- Providing administrative and funding context
- Identify stakeholders
- Identify data sources
- Collect data
- Interpret findings
- Disseminate findings within program
- Disseminate findings to community audiences
- Disseminate findings to agency leaders and funding agencies
- Formal Interview
- Informal Interview
- Focus group
- Advisory committee
- External Reviewer
- Data collector
- Information only
In table 2 below, list the stakeholders that you have identified
and fill in: their interest or perspective, their role in the evaluation,
and how and when you will engage them. After completing table 2,
it can be inserted into your evaluation plan with some explanatory
Often, the roles of stakeholders will change during an evaluation.
You may need to revise your plan several times as changes occur.
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Background and Description of the
The purpose of this section is to describe your TB program. The program description
will ensure that all evaluation stakeholders have a shared understanding
of your TB program’s objectives, activities, and outputs.
It will also identify any unfounded assumptions or logical gaps
in your evaluation planning. Once completed, the program description
will lead naturally into your program’s logic model.
The need for your program can be addressed by considering a series
of questions. Your answers to these questions will help you develop
the plan for this section.
- What problem does or should your program address (e.g., TB
incidence among immigrant population is rising, patients not adherance
to treatment plan)?
- What causes the problem (e.g., persons from high TB incidence
countries arriving in state, these persons are not being reached
for TB and LTBI treatment; cultural/language barriers)?
- What are the consequences of the problem (e.g., treatment costs
rise, morbidity, ill-health, backlash against the foreign-born
- What is the magnitude of the problem (e.g., there exists a
potential for a large problem, but acting now may reduce this
- What changes or trends are occurring (e.g., TB incidence is
increasing, demographic patterns are changing, decrease in completion
of therapy rate)?
Context considers the environment that affects your TB program’s
operations. These factors can include
- How the TB program collaborates and coordinates with other
health and social services in the community, such as hospitals,
schools, HIV service programs, and programs that provide housing
and food support.
- How the program is funded – does it compete for resources
with other public health programs within the community?
- Organization’s structural factors (i.e., personnel, training,
administrative regulations) that impact your program’s operations
- Policy and political environment surrounding your program
- Community perceptions of TB as a disease
Consider and explain the contextual factors in your evaluation
plan as necessary.
This section describes the group that your TB program targets in
addressing the concerns. For example,
- Newly arrived immigrants
- Homeless persons
- People who are HIV infected
- People who abuse substances
- People living in congregate settings (e.g., low-income, institutions,
Your statement of program objectives should refer back to your
program’s goal(s). Objectives should be established that support
this goal. Your program’s objectives are frequently national
or state TB objectives, however, your program may also have its
own objectives. If your objectives are not established, it is an
important part of your plan to do this now.
If you choose to write your own objectives, be sure that they are
S-M-A-R-T: specific, measurable, achievable,
relevant, and time-bound. Detailed explanations and
examples of SMART objectives can be found in the Appendix B.
Goal: To eliminate TB in the community and improve quality
of life. In order to achieve this overarching goal, 4 program
objectives were identified.
- Increase percentage of patients identified with TB who
are placed on DOT within 1 month of diagnosis from 85% to
90% by January 2006.
- Increase percentage of TB patients who utilize case management
services from 60% to 70% by Fall 2006.
- Increase the number of referrals to the local health department
made by community health centers from 100 to 150 by Fall
- Increase percentage of community members who understand
how TB transmitted from 20% to 40% by Fall 2005.
Stage of Program Development
Assessing the developmental stage of your program will help you
frame your evaluation and write your evaluation questions. The stage
of development may also vary among the different program components
that carry out specific program activities. Consider carefully how
long the program has been in existence and what stage is each one
of your program components/activities in?
- Needs assessment
- Design and planning
- Implementation: early (e.g., less than a year) or middle?
- Well-established implementation (e.g., 13 years)
Stage of development will also help you to decide on process evaluation,
outcome evaluation, or both.
This section describes all of the resources available to implement
your program. This can include (but is not limited to)
- TB program staff
- Training and continuing education staff
- Physical or structural components (space, testing facilities)
- Infrastructure resources that are part of the health department
- Partner organizations
To complete this section, make a list of all the resources available
to your program in table 3 below.
Activities describe what your program is doing to accomplish objectives.
These can include
- Hiring and training new staff
- Policy development or revision
- Providing targeted TB testing to specific high-risk populations
- Identifying persons with latent TB infection or active TB disease
- Administering DOT
- Educating patients or community members
- Providing laboratory and diagnostic services
- Managing clinic operation
- Providing technical assistance
To complete this section, make a list of all the activities undertaken
by your program in table 3 below. Note that activities can be grouped
as initial and subsequent activities. Although most activties in
TB programs are ongoing, some activities may need to be done before
others. For example, diagnosis of TB disease may come prior to prescribing
a treatment to treat the disease.
These are the immediate materials, services,
and capacities that are a direct product of your programmatic activities
and processes. Examples include
- A strategic plan for your program
- TB Tests conducted
- Providers educated about TB
- Education sessions presented to community groups
Outputs are assessed to “show” that the program is
being implemented as planned. However, they are not indications
of effectiveness. For example, we can record that 10 educational
sessions were conducted or that 50 skin tests were administered,
but there’s no direct indication whether people have learned
or acted on the results of their tests. In short, outputs show what
work was done by our staff, but do not indicate that changes have
taken place or resulted due to these actions. To identify your programs
outputs, consider each activity you listed in table 3 and list corresponding
outputs in the column to the right of your activities. For example,
the output “TB test conducted” corresponds to the activity,
“providing TB testing.” The activity, “administering
DOT” corresponds to the output, “DOT adminisered or
patients received DOT.”
Outcomes are the intended effects of the program’s activities.
They may or may not have been achieved by your program. They are
the changes you want to occur in patients, providers, or the community,
because of the work of your TB program. These are typically thought
of as short-, mid- or long-term outcomes and should be tied to your
program objectives. Some examples are…
- Patients’ knowledge is increased
- Patients accept treatment for TB and LTBI
- Patients identify contacts
- Patients on appropraite treatment
- Patients adhere to treatment
- Timely completion of treatment
- Reduced hospital admissions for TB
- Reduced transmission of TB
Some of the important changes we want to occur, however, are less
direct or easy to measure. For example we may want:
- Trust built within the community
- Patients identify all of their close contacts
- Stigma about TB reduced
- Improved patient quality of life
- Patients are healthier overall
For these outcomes, “proxy” or indirect measures can
be used to assess whether they have been achieved. Often, program
staff may be able to suggest ways to measure these effects. For
example, an outreach worker may “know” trust is built
when a community member approaches him with a question about TB.
A nurse may “know” stigma is reduced when a patient
talks openly in front of a friend. These types of information can
be incorporated and used in the evaluation. See page 26 for
more information on using “proxy” measures in evaluation.
To identify your program outcomes, consider the activities and
outputs you listed in table 3 and list corresponding outcomes in
the column to the right. Once completed, table 3 can be included
in your evaluation plan as part of the program description.
Program Logic Model
A logic model is a graphic depiction of the program. The arrows describe
the links between inputs/resources, activities, outputs and outcomes
as illustrated by figure 2 below. Using the resources, activities,
outputs, and outcomes identified in the project description (table
3), you can now develop a logic model for your program.
Drawing a logic model during the evaluation planning process is
important to define the associations among program resources, activities,
and its results. For the evaluation, a logic model provides:
- A sense of scope – what are the program’s components?
How are they interconnected?
- A “map” to help ensure that systematic decisions
are made about what is to be measured in the evaluation process
and to identify areas where clarification may be needed.
- A framework for organizing indicators and for ensuring that
none are overlooked
Logic models for high priority TB program activities have been developed
and are available as examples. It may be useful to review these
models prior to developing your own to see if one of these logic
models can be used to describe your program with minor modifications.
The six TB logic models and their corresponding goals are (See Appendix
- Meta-model for TB Elimination
Eliminate TB in the United States.
- Capacity and Infrastructure to Eliminate TB
Develop capacity and infrastructure TB elimination.
- Evaluation Capacity Building
Promote and enhance active program monitoring and self-evaluation
among TB control partners at each administrative level.
- Completion of Therapy
Complete TB treatment among person with TB disease within
12 months of diagnosis.
- Prevent TB in High Risk Populations
Prevent TB among high-risk populations.
(through targeted testing and treatment)
- Contact Investigation
Prevent TB among contacts to cases.
(by finding and testing contacts for TB and LTBI, and then treat
infected contacts to completion)
After creating or adapting the logic model that best depicts your
program, include it in your evaluation plan. There are no “right”
or “wrong” logic models, but the logic model must clearly
show the complete paths linking inputs and activities to outcomes.
You will probably need to review and revise your logic model many
times throughout the evaluation.
Note that you can use a table format or a graphic (hand drawn is
acceptable) for the logic model. Attach this to your evaluation
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Focus of the Evaluation
Although the logic model may inspire many evaluation questions, it may not
be feasible or useful to evaluate every element or path in your
logic model. Thus, focusing your evaluation and selecting your evaluation
questions are important steps. Focus will also ensure that the evaluation
meets the needs of stakeholders and that the findings will be used
Your answers to the following questions will help you focus your
evaluation by identifying what your stakeholders need to learn from
the evaluation – the evaluation questions.
- Who will use the evaluation findings?
- How will the findings be used?
- What do they need to learn from the evaluation?
The worksheet below will help you think about possible answers
to these questions. Check who will use the evaluation findings,
how the findings will be used and what they need to learn from the
evaluation. The list includes sample answers to the questions. You
may come up with different answers on your own.
There are two basic types of evaluation questions:
Process questions, which focus on examining the implementation
of the program,
- Are the activities we planned being implemented?
- Are we producing the outcomes we expect?
- Are we using our inputs and resources effectively?
Outcome evaluation focuses on showing whether or not a program
achieves the desired changes in patients, providers, or the community.
Using your assessment of who will use the findings and how the
findings will be used, identify key evaluation questions based on
your logic model.
The sample evaluation questions are shown below. These questions
are based on the logic model shown in figure 3.
Sample Evaluation Questions
- Are there sufficient resources to carry out the activities
of our program?
- Are contacts identified in the timeframe set by our procedures?
- Have community partners been engaged to collaborate with
us to prevent TB in high-risk populations?
- Are infected contacts who started treatment for LTBI completed
- How did the program contribute to the decrease of TB
- To what degree was the program able to reduce the prevalence
From the long list of questions that can be generated, you will
need to select your 3-5 highest priority evaluation questions. Questions
should reflect both process and outcomes. However, these questions
are still preliminary pending the considerations of the data needs
of your evaluation questions. Not only should the evaluation serve
the needs of the stakeholders, but it should be feasible and produce
accurate findings. Depending on the resources and time available
for your evaluation, only a few evaluation questions can be assessed.
After selecting a few evaluation questions from your highest priority
questions, these questions will dictate your evaluation design and
data collection methods. In this section of your evaluation plan,
state what questions will be addressed with this evaluation.
Although program evaluation questions are geared to answering specific
specific programs, the designs for answering them often resemble
However, it is important to remember that the purpose of evaluation
is to improve programs, not to publish generalizable findings, and
therefore you need only collect data sufficient to answer your evaluation
Key issues you need to decide about evaluation design are:
- Will you have a control or comparison group?
- Will you measure before and after or only after?
- Will you collect data prospectively or retrospectively?
- Do you need in-depth, detailed information about the question(s)
(qualitative information), or specific, targeted information (quantitative
- What resources are available to conduct the evaluation (e.g.,
staff time for members of the evaluation team, data collection,
funds to hire evaluators, space to house evaluators or evaluation
- What data do you already have or are already collecting for
another purpose that may be useful for the evaluation? What data
do you need?
Additional considerations that are helpful in selecting your design:
- Standards of “good” evaluation. You will
want to select a design that provides useful information to improve
the TB program, and is feasible such that it is not overly disruptive
of daily operations. In addition, the design that is selected
should produce accurate findings given the program’s operations
and the resources available for the evaluation.
- Timeliness. When do decisions need to be made about
- Stage of program development. For a newly developed
component/activity, process evaluation helps us understand what
we need to do in order to enhance the program. In a well established
program, the addition of outcome evaluation may serve to help
identify program’s performance and effectiveness.
Consider strengthening your design by
- Mix methods when appropriate such as combining interviews and
- Use repeated measures
- Triangulate (use multiple and varied data sources to draw conclusions)
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Gathering Credible Evidence: Data
This section provides information about how you will conduct the evaluation.
It includes the indicators you will use to determine program success,
program targets that will serve as benchmarks to evaluate performance
against, data collection methods and tools, and a timeline for data
Indicators are measurable signs of a program’s performance.
Good indicators are relevant, understandable, and useful. Indicators
are tied to the objectives identified in the program description,
the logic model and/or the evaluation questions. A library of indicators
that can be used by TB programs has been developed. A sample
list of indicators is provided in Appendix D. Many of these will
be useful in your evaluation design. Note that these are a mix of
process indicators that measure implementation activities as well
as outcome indicators. However, if you choose to write your own
indicators, tie your indicators to a S-M-A-R-T objective as described
below in worksheet 3. Use Table 4 to record your indicators and
tie them to evaluation questions.
Worksheet 3. Creating Indicators from S-M-A-R-T Objectives
When your evaluation questions do not draw on existing program
objectives, a similar strategy can be used to develop indicators.
Keeping in mind that indicators are visible and measurable signs
of change, identify some observable manifestations of the concept,
using proxy measures as appropriate, and state them in the proposed
fashion (including terms for metric, population, object and timeframe
as suggested in worksheet 3).
| Evaluation Question
| Have Spanish-speaking persons
been treated appropriately for LTBI or TB?
|| Visit of Spanish-speaking patients to
|| Number of Spanish-speaking persons treated
by clinic for TB & LTBI between Jan – June.
| Whether or not clinical treatment standards
have been met may indicate whether treatment are administered
|| Number of times clinical treatment standards
are met for Spanish-speaking patients
| Forms and signs in Spanish and accessible
to the low literate may indicate the effort to implement appropriate
|| Percent of time that signs and forms
are available in Spanish and written for persons with low-literacy
| Presence of Spanish-speaking staff may
indicate presence of communication and likelihood of appropriate
|| Percent of time that Spanish-speaking
staff are present in clinic
| Knowledge of how to access translator
services may indicate proper implementation of staff training
|| Percentage of clerks/staff who know
how to access translators or certified interpreters
| Respect is the basis of all care and
|| Percent of patients who report being
Program Benchmarks or Targets
Program Benchmarks or targets are what the stakeholders of the
TB programs consider to be “reasonable expectations”
for the program. In thinking about the program benchmarks, it is
important to think about what “success” means. How do
you measure success? What does it mean if the program is successful
or effective? These standards that programs have set for themselves
will be used as the benchmark against which you will evaluate your
program’s performance. The overarching program benchmarks
or targets are usually established when the management team formalizes
the program objectives and sets the goal(s) for the program. Standards
or targets may not exist that relate to all of your evaluation questions,
but many standards are implicit in a program’s strategic plans,
TB National Guidelines, and treatment protocols. Stakeholders can
also help you set program standards. The example below illustrates
how evaluation questions, indicators, and program benchmarks relate
to one another. Benchmarks or targets that you identify can be also
recorded in table 4.
and Outcome Indicators
| Have Spanish-speaking persons been treated
appropriately for LTBI or TB?
|| Number of new Spanish-speaking persons treated
by clinic for TB & LTBI between Jan – June.
|| Increase in the number of Spanish-speaking patients
| Number of times clinical treatment standards (i.e.,
proper referrals made and test conducted) are met for Spanish-speaking
|| Clinical standards are met 100% of time
| Percent of time that signs and forms are available
in Spanish and written for persons with low-literacy skills
|| Patient education signs and forms in Spanish are
available 100% of time; literacy level of materials is at a
6rd grade reading level
| Percent of time that Spanish-speaking staff are
present in clinic
|| 80% of time Spanish-speaking staff are available
| Percent of clerks/staff who know how to access
translators or certified interpreters
|| All staff know how to access and use translators
or certified interpreters
| Percent of patients who report being treated respectfully
|| 90% of Spanish-speaking patients report that they
were treated respectfully
After completing table 4, it can be included in your evaluation
plan with explanatory text. Note that it is likely that you will
have multiple indicators tied to each evaluation question.
Your plan should include details about collecting the necessary
data for each indicator. Use table 5 to describe your data collection
plan. To complete this table, consider the following questions for
- What methods will you use to collect the data?
- Where are the data?
- How often will it be collected?
- Who is responsible for collecting the data?
- How will you handle and store the data?
Note that more than one data source may provide information for
Examples of data sources include:
- Records or charts
- TB registry and databases
- Interviews or focus groups
- Participant observations
- Other documents
Tools are the documents or strategies that you will use to collect
the data you need. When choosing tools, consider whether the questions
you are asking or data elements you are collecting are tied to your
- Collect the information you need in the most straightforward
- Collect only the information you need
- Use tools that are easy to understand, administer and use, and
do not place undue burdens on staff or patients
- Pilot test tools before using them to collect the evaluation
data so that you know that users can successfully use the tool
for its intended purpose. Make changes based on your pilot test
Human Subjects Consideration
At this point it is important to consider if your evaluation
will require review by your program’s Institutional
Review Board (IRB). Many program evaluations are exempt from
review but this is a consideration when developing your plan.
In your evaluation plan, describe the tools you are using and their
purpose. The tools you will use to collect the evaluation data can
be attached to the plan as an appendix if you choose.
A timeline is not required in an evaluation plan but it can be
helpful in guiding evaluation activities. Developing a timeline
will ensure that all stakeholders are aware of what activities are
occurring at any time. It may also help you determine if your evaluation
resources will be strained by too many activities happening at any
given time. Table 6 is an illustrative timeline that may be useful
in your evaluation plan if you choose to use one.
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Justifying Conclusions: Analysis
This section describes your plan for analyzing and interpreting the evaluation
data. Specific components of this section will be determined by
your design and methods. However, general guidance for this section
Describe what techniques you will use to analyze your evaluation
data. Although your initial analysis plan may be general, you may
want to address issues such as:
- What data aggregation systems or software you plan to use
- What statistical methods (if any) you plan to use
- What stratifications (if any) you plan to examine among the
- What types of tables or figures you may use
Complete Table 7 to describe your analysis plan linking data collection
methods to analysis techniques and identifying who is responsible
for this analysis. If you need assistance with selecting methods
or techniques, www.cdc.gov/eval has many resources available
to assist in the process.
In this phase you will judge your findings against the program
standards. In drawing conclusions from the evaluation findings,
it is important to consider the context in which the program is
operating. It is also important that conclusions be sound, reasonable
and objective. Involving the stakeholders in this process will bring
insights and explanation to the evaluation findings, thus ensuring
the validity of the interpretation and that recommendations based
on the findings are relevant. Developing a draft report and sharing
it with stakeholders is one method of involving stakeholders in
the interpretation process and may be sufficient and appropriate
in some cases.
Use worksheet 4 to help you plan what type of stakeholder should
be invited to your meeting to interpret the findings. This list
is intended to give you ideas and suggestions as to whom you might
like to involve in this important process. However, other people
should be considered as appropriate.
In your evaluation plan, explain who will be involved in interpreting
the findings and describe the procedures and guidelines you will
use to help you interpret the evaluation findings.
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Ensuring Use and Sharing Lessons Learned:
Reporting and Dissemination
A reporting and dissemination plan
will ensure that evaluation findings will be distributed to those
who will make use of the lessons learned from the evaluation. The
plan should describe what medium you will use to disseminate
the evaluation findings, who is responsible for disseminating the
findings, how the findings will be used and who will act on the
findings. The purpose of program evaluation is to use the information
from the evaluation to improve program operation and enhance its
performance. An evaluation does not achieve its purpose if not used.
It is helpful to review your stakeholder assessment in developing
the reporting and dissemination plan. Use table 8 to indicate how
the findings will be distributed and by whom.
In writing this section of your plan, check the reporting and dissemination
plan against the stakeholder list you developed earlier and refer
to worksheet 3 to ensure that your reports will address stakeholder
needs and that the reports will reach them.
Throughout the evaluation process you will want to develop mechanisms
to ensure that findings are used and changes implemented. Your plan
should address how you plan to use your findings, in at least a
general way. You will add to the list of uses as your evaluation
Although not typically something attached to an evaluation plan,
the following action planning worksheet can help you anticipate
how your findings will be used to improve your program.
Appendices to your evaluation plan can include many different items that
are too detailed or long to include in the body of the plan. These
- Copies of instruments or tools
- Analysis programs
- Reporting formats