Self-Study Modules for Effective TB Interviewing
Active listening – the process of hearing what is said and
paying attention to how it is said so that further dialogue can
be adjusted to elicit the needed responses. Active listening utilizes
various verbal and nonverbal techniques.
Barrier – physical or nonphysical obstacles or hindrances
that can slow or stop communication.
Closed-ended questions – require one-word or briefly-phrased
responses, such as “yes” or “no.” Closed-ended questions can move
a conversation in a more productive direction if the information
that is being sought is not being obtained.
Communication – the exchange of information by symbols,
words, signs, or actions. It is an interactive process, which involves
feedback. Communication revolves around asking questions, listening
actively, understanding a patient’s concerns or needs, and demonstrating
a caring attitude while helping to solve problems.
Interpreter – an individual who orally conveys the exact
communication for another individual who has little or no proficiency
in the language in which the interviewer is speaking. Ideally, an
interpreter should be professionally trained or certified.
Focused questions – used if the respondent makes a vague
statement or one requiring more specific information. The question
may provide limits or boundaries to direct an answer.
Open-ended questions – used to promote dialogue; these questions
require more than a one-word answer and usually begin with who,
where, what, why, or how.
Nonverbal communication – conveying messages through body
language, such as eye contact, facial expression, posture, gestures,
Paraphrasing –the rewording of a patient’s response in order
to verify information and display that the interviewer is effectively
Patient education – the process of providing information
to a patient on his or her medical condition, treatment regimen,
or processes in which he or she becomes involved with healthcare
staff (e.g., contact investigation). Information is based on patient’s
level of understanding, existing knowledge, and feedback (e.g.,
body language or questions) he or she provides.
Reflection – an interviewer’s rewording of a patient’s reactions
through acknowledging a patient’s feeling(s) and its cause.
Summarizing – the rephrasing of a series of statements
that have occurred through a dialogue in order to verify information
and demonstrate that the interviewer is listening carefully.
Verbal communication – how something is said conveys meaning
in addition to what is actually said. Verbal communication
includes sound, words, and language.