TB Elimination: The Difference Between Latent TB Infection and TB Disease

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Adult hand holding a baby's hand.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by a germ called Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is spread from person to person through the air. TB usually affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, the kidneys, or the spine. When a person with infectious TB coughs or sneezes, droplet nuclei containing M. tuberculosis are expelled into the air.

Diagnostic Atlas of Intrathoratic Tuberculosis in Children - A Guide For Low Income Countries

International Union Against Turberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD)
Chest x-ray.

With the increasing interest in childhood tuberculosis (TB) the difficulties in making the diagnosis of intrathoracic TB are becoming increasingly clear. In adults suspected of having tuberculosis, the diagnosis in the majority of cases is confirmed by examination of the sputum for acid-fast bacilli.

Combating Tuberculosis in Children

World Health Organization
Little girl being administered medicine with a spoon.

Globally at least US$ 80 million per year will be required to address childhood TB. An additional $40 million per year will be needed for antiretroviral therapy and co-trimoxazole preventive therapy for children co-infected with TB and HIV. For childhood TB research, at least $40 million per year will be required to complete projects directly aimed at providing new tools for preventing, diagnosing and treating children who have TB.

Childhood Diseases and Conditions of Tuberculosis in the Child Care Setting

All Family Resources
Grandfather holding his grandaughter in his arms.

TB is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These germs can be spread from one person to others. These germs can be spread through the air when a person with TB disease coughs, sneezes, yells, or sings. Children, although they may be infectious, usually are not as likely as adults to transmit TB to others.

Childhood TB Training Toolkit

World Health Organization
Three children holding hands forming a circle.

It is estimated that there are more than half a million cases of tuberculosis (TB) in children occurring globally each year. In settings with a high overall incidence of TB, children can account for a large proportion (up to one-third) of all TB cases. As a consequence, TB is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children in TB endemic countries.

Management of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Children and Adolescents

New Jersey Medical School Global Tuberculosis Institute
Children playing outside in a single file line.

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is defined as infection with the tubercle bacilli without signs and symptoms or radiographic evidence of tuberculosis (TB) disease. Because we know that LTBI is the precursor to TB disease, the early identification of children infected with the M. tuberculosis bacillus is a critical factor in preventing morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population.

Rapid Advice - Treatment of Tuberculosis in Children

World Health Organization
Boy drinking his juice out of a straw.

The World Health Organization (WHO) first published guidance for national tuberculosis control programmes on managing tuberculosis in children (hereafter called “the Guidance”) in 2006. The Guidance follows the principles of a public health approach aimed at optimizing outcomes, including the quality of life and survival, of children with tuberculosis; it also serves as a reference tool for countries to adopt and adapt according to their national circumstances.

Dosing instructions for the use of currently available fixed-dose combination TB medicines for children

World Health Organization
Picture of pills laying next to containers.

It has now been proposed by the Expert Committee on Selection and Use of Essential Medicines that a Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) containing rifampicin 250 mg, isoniazid 150 mg, pyrazinamide 400 mg, and ethambutol 250 mg, would be the ideal product for the treatment regimen for the intensive phase of treatment in children between 5 kg and 30 kg.

Management of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children - A Field Guide

The Sentinel Project for Pediatric Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
Baby being held in the hands of a doctor.

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a growing global health crisis; MDR-TB is defined as strains of TB with in vitro resistance to at least isoniazi and rifampin, and it is estimated there are more than five million people infected and sick with drug-resistant forms of TB in the world today (World Health Organization, 2011).

Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children - 2nd ed.

World Health Organization
Picture showing the administration of a TST.

Important recent changes or additions to guidelines for the management of tuberculosis (TB) in children have made it necessary to revise the first edition of Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children, published by WHO in 2006.

Pediatric TB Radiology for Clinicians

Kim C. Smith, MD, MPH Susan D. John, MD
Cover of a book with a picture of a doctor showing x-ray to children.

This book for clinicians shows and describes examples of radiographic abnormalities common in pediatric tuberculosis, emphasizing pulmonary, lymphatic and meningeal disease. The utility of CT scan and MRI in pediatric TB are also discussed. Radiographs and case studies are used as illustrations throughout the book.

Pediatric Toolbox

X-ray of an infant.

A variety of resources such as Clinical Tools for Providers, Diagnosis and Treatment, Patient Education, and a Tuberculosis Information Site by the CDC.

Ethambutol efficacy and toxicity: literature review and recommendations for daily and intermittent dosage in children

World Health Organization
Portrait of a baby boy.

Current recommendations by WHO and other bodies for the dosage of ethambutol (EMB) in children vary from a maximum daily dose of 15 mg/kg body weight daily (without a range) to daily doses of 15–20 mg/kg and of 20 mg/kg with a range of 15–25 mg/kg. This document reviews the published evidence relating to the dosage, toxicity and pharmacokinetics of EMB in children and adults.